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gas price and gas limit ethereumA curated weekly summary of forward-focused crypto news that matters. This week, Ethereum hovers around US$4000 after its first deflationary day, Bitcoin's appeal as a macro asset grows, and Solana continues its epic surge, climbing up the top 10 digital asset chart.

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It was a bullish week of trading in the digital asset markets with a surging Ethereum leading to strong gains throughout the week. Ethereum (ETH) ended the week up an impressive 22% and is poised to challenge the key US$4000 price level. Bitcoin (BTC) ended the week up ~6% having broken the key US$50,000 price level. Alpha performers amongst large cap assets included Solana (SOL), and Filecoin (FIL), which rose ~46% and ~60% respectively.Ethereum had its first ever deflationary day on September 3rd. This means that more Ethereum was burnt from transaction fees than was earned by miners. On September 3rd over 13,814 ETH worth ~US$55 million was burnt, a new record, compared to the 12932 ETH that was minted.The burning or removal of ETH out of circulation is a new feature of the network. It was introduced on August 5th, as part of EIP1559, which was implemented during the non-backward compatible London hard fork. ETH has been on a sustained rally ever since, rising by ~58%. EIP1559 also introduced a base transaction fee burn mechanism. The base fee required for all Ethereum network transactions is now burnt, a design choice to prevent miner collusion.The burn feature means that ETH now has a Bitcoin halving-esque supply constriction mechanism. The yearly inflation (money supply) growth rate is set to reduce significantly and gives ETH more appeal as a buy and hold asset.The design of the burn mechanism means that as the transaction demand of Ethereum increases, more ETH is taken out of circulation. So if demand increases, the new supply decreases, and these two tailwinds should push the price of ETH higher. The biggest driver of demand to use Ethereum in the last week has been the booming Non-Fungible-Token (NFT) market. OpenSea, the biggest marketplace for Ethereum-based NFTs, is the largest user of gas on the network. Other NFT projects driving gas usage include Trash Pandas and the Lucky Buddha Club.

Bitcoin had a strong Sunday on the back of global stagflation concerns. The market is bullish on macro hedge investments and with large outflows of US government debt now occurring, money is flowing into risk assets. Tech stocks and Bitcoin have both surged as a result.Stagflation occurs when growth is slow but inflation is high. In this environment, even aggressive monetary policy can be ineffective in stimulating economic activity. Last month saw the U.S. create the fewest new jobs in seven months. Job creation in the United States is drying up due to a new rise in COVID19 infections. Sectors that have been especially hard hit include leisure and hospitality.Defence Secretary Ben Wallace has launched an investigation into a data breach involving the email addresses of dozens of Afghan interpreters who worked for British forces.

More than 250 people seeking relocation to the UK - many of whom are in hiding - were mistakenly copied into an email from the Ministry of Defence.Their email addresses could be seen by all recipients, showing people's names and some associated profile pictures.The MoD has apologised in a statement.The email was sent to interpreters who remain in Afghanistan or have been able to get to other countries.

Conservative MP and former defence minister Johnny Mercer told BBC Radio 4's Today programme: "The reality is we've left the vast, vast majority of our interpreters behind so this is going to have a profound impact on people who are still in the country."He said he had spoken to the brother of one man, trained by the UK to serve in Afghan special forces, who had been executed after the evacuation by the US and UK and whose family is now on the run.

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Failings by the Ministry of Defence and the Home Office had led to Afghan allies being "hunted ruthlessly by the Taliban", he said.The email was sent by the team in charge of the UK's Afghan Relocations and Assistance Policy (Arap), which has been in contact with them since the Taliban took control of the country last month.The team told the interpreters it was doing everything it could to help relocate them.It also said they should not put themselves or their families at risk if it was not safe for them to leave their current location.

But one interpreter who received the email realised that more than 250 Afghans who worked with British forces had been copied into the email."This mistake could cost the life of interpreters, especially for those who are still in Afghanistan," they told the BBC."Some of the interpreters didn't notice the mistake and they replied to all the emails already and they explained their situation which is very dangerous. The email contains their profile pictures and contact details."The MoD then sent another email 30 minutes later with the title "Urgent - Arap case contact" asking the recipients to delete the previous email and warning "your email address may have been compromised".

It recommended the interpreters change their email addresses.Labour shadow defence secretary John Healey said the data breach had "needlessly put lives at risk" and called on the government to urgently step up efforts to get the interpreters to the UK.

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After the BBC approached the Ministry of Defence, the defence secretary was angry enough to order an immediate inquiry.It's likely this data breach was just human error, and the apology is certainly sincere, but there are obviously concerns if the email addresses, names and pictures fall into the wrong hands.

While the military evacuation on the ground was rightly lauded, the failure to get all those who worked with British forces out has left hundreds stranded and in hiding.Just this week we spoke to the family of an eight-month-old British baby who is still stuck there, an interpreter who is on the run fearing for his life, and another interpreter who just does not know what to do.This data breach just compounds their safety concerns.An MoD spokeswoman said an investigation had been launched into what Mr Wallace called an "unacceptable breach"."We apologise to everyone impacted by this breach and are working hard to ensure it does not happen again," she said.She added that the MoD "takes its information and data handling responsibilities very seriously".

Tobias Ellwood MP, who chairs the defence select committee, welcomed the investigation but said it was more pressing to get the interpreters out of the country as soon as possible."Each day they remain in the country the risk of them not making it out increases," he said.

Australia's Victoria state has shut construction sites across Melbourne following a violent protest against mandatory Covid-19 vaccines.The protest on Monday was against a requirement for staff to prove they had received a vaccine dose to access their workplace.

Officials said some sites would be shut for up to two weeks after construction workers and other protesters clashed.Property was damaged and police said several people were arrested.

Hundreds gathered in Melbourne for another anti-vaccination protest on Tuesday, setting off flares and reportedly throwing urine at reporters.On Monday, riot police were deployed and reportedly used rubber bullets and pepper spray to disperse crowds.It comes following an announcement that from Thursday 23 September construction workers will be required to show proof that they have had at least one vaccine dose in order to continue to work, local media report.The CFMEU condemned "in the strongest possible terms" the attack on its Melbourne office, where members had shown up in support of the government mandate, saying the violence occurred after the protest was "infiltrated" by right-wing groups.

Some of its members were injured during the clashes, the union said in a statement, adding that bottles were thrown at officials.In a Facebook post, the Master Builders Association of Victoria said all building and construction industry sites in metropolitan Melbourne, Geelong, Surf Coast, Ballarat and the Mitchell Shire had to close from midnight Monday.

It said this was in response to a combination of a rise in Covid-19 transmissions in the building industry and the "riots" in Melbourne.The association added that while the construction shutdown was scheduled to last for two weeks, sites would be able to reopen earlier if lockdown measures were lifted by regional governments.

With a relatively low Covid-19 death rate, Australia has been praised for its efforts controlling the virus.The country has so far recorded just over 87,000 cases of Covid-19, and 1,167 coronavirus-related deaths, according to the latest Johns Hopkins University data.

However, about half the population has recently been placed in lockdown due to outbreaks in the cities of Melbourne, Sydney and Canberra, with the Delta variant causing cases to rise more rapidly.Kabul is a city still waiting for its new life to take shape - a lot depends on the will and whims of its new Taliban masters. But it is hunger that could become the worst of Afghanistan's many crises.For the poor of the city, the majority, scraping together a few hundred Afghanis, a couple of dollars, to stave off starvation is the biggest challenge.Millions live in desperate poverty in a country that has received huge sums in foreign aid. The money left over that might help them, around $9bn in central bank reserves, is frozen by the Americans to keep it away from the Taliban.

At dawn, hundreds of construction workers gather in one of Kabul's open-air markets with their tools looking for a day's work.Big building projects in the city have stopped. The banks are closed. The foreign money tap has been turned off. What is left amounts to a few drips.

A handful of the construction workers get picked up for work. The rest are getting angry. One of the men, Hayat Khan, raged about the fortunes stolen by a corrupt elite in the last 20 years."Wealthy people think about themselves, not the poor. I can't even buy bread. Believe me I cannot find a single dollar and the rest of the rich people put the aid dollars from the West in their pockets.

"No-one cares for the poor people. When aid comes from outside, the people in power made sure it went to their relatives, not to the poor."Mohammed Anwar, lucky enough to have an office job, stopped to listen to my interviews with the building workers, and then chipped in, speaking English, accusing the Americans of theft.

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Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC#

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster

Mark Suster

Written by

2x entrepreneur. Sold both companies (last to salesforce.com). Turned VC looking to invest in passionate entrepreneurs 〞 I*m on Twitter at @msuster

Both Sides of the Table

Perspectives of a 2x entrepreneur turned VC at @UpfrontVC, the largest and most active early-stage fund in Southern California. Snapchat: msuster